Functions of idh1 and its mutation in the regulation of developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation (IDH1-R132H) was recently identified in acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics. The mutant enzyme is thought to convert α-ketoglutarate to the pathogenic 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) that affects DNA methylation via inhibition of ten-eleven translocation 2. However, the role of wild-type IDH1 in normal hematopoiesis and its relevance to acute myeloid leukemia is unknown. Here we showed that zebrafish idh1 (zidh1) knockdown by morpholino and targeted mutagenesis by transcription activator-like effector nuclease might induce blockade in myeloid differentiation, as evident by an increase in pu.1 and decrease in mpo, l-plastin, and mpeg1 expression, and significantly reduce definitive hematopoiesis. Morpholino knockdown of zidh2 also induced a blockade in myeloid differentiation but definitive hematopoiesis was not affected. The hematopoietic phenotype of zidh1 knockdown was not rescuable by zidh2 messenger RNA, suggesting nonredundant functions. Overexpression of human IDH1-R132H or its zebrafish ortholog resulted in 2-HG elevation and expansion of myelopoiesis in zebrafish embryos. A human IDH1-R132H-specific inhibitor (AGI-5198) significantly ameliorated both hematopoietic and 2-HG responses in human but not zebrafish IDH1 mutant expression. The results provided important insights to the role of zidh1 in myelopoiesis and definitive hematopoiesis and of IDH1-R132H in leukemogenesis.